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What Can Cause Bunions?

Overview
Bunions Callous
A bunion is enlargement of bone or tissue that develops at the joint that connects your big toe to your foot. The bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons of your feet normally are well-balanced to distribute your body’s weight while standing, walking and running. When the joint, called the metatarsophalangeal joint, or MTP joint, experiences abnormal, prolonged stress in terms of weight distribution or squeezing of the toes within the shoe, the result can be the deformity called a bunion. Generally, a bunion develops when, as a response to prolonged stress, your big toe begins bending toward your foot’s smaller toes and puts pressure on your MTP joint, forcing it to bulge outward (the term “bunion” comes from the Latin word for “enlargement”). There is no “standard” bunion, however, but rather a complex range of joint, bone and tendon abnormalities that can cause variation in each bunion’s make-up.


Causes
Essentially, bunions are caused by a disruption of the normal interworking of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons that comprise your feet, often from wearing shoes that squeeze the toes or place too much weight-bearing stress on them. However, it should be pointed out that other causes or factors in the development of bunions can include flat feet or low arches in the feet, some forms of arthritis, problems with foot mechanics, foot injuries and neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy. Arthritis in the MTP joint, for example, can degrade the cartilage that protects it, and other problems may cause ligaments to become loose. Pronation, walking in a way that your foot rolls inwards, increases your risk for developing bunions.


Symptoms
It is unusual to have much bunion or hallux valgus pain when out of shoe wear or at rest. There are exceptions to this and in particular if symptoms have been ignored during the day and the bunion has become very painful during the day then some symptoms may be present at night. The pain from the region of the great toe at rest or at night is however more often a symptom of an arthritic big toe (hallux rigidus) rather than a straightforward bunion. To confuse matters these two conditions can sometimes coexist. Bunion or hallux valgus pain is most often present when walking in enclosed shoes. There may be little bunion pain in sandals or barefoot. It is unusual to have much bunion pain when not putting weight on the foot or at night. If there is bunion pain at rest or at night then there may also be arthritic change within the toe.


Diagnosis
Generally, observation is adequate to diagnose a bunion, as the bump is obvious on the side of the foot or base of the big toe. However, your physician may order X-rays that will show the extent of the deformity of the foot.


Non Surgical Treatment
One of the best things you can do is to go for wider, deeper shoes. Trevor Prior says there should be a centimeter between the end of your longest toe and end of shoe. You should also choose shoes with an adjustable strap or lace. Podiatrists often recommend exercises to strengthen muscles and tendons around the big toe. Here?s one you can try yourself. Put your feet side by side, and try to move your big toes towards each other. Do this three or four times a day, while you?re in the bath or in bed.
Bunions Hard Skin


Surgical Treatment
Bunion surgery is both an art and a science, and it should always be performed by a healthcare professional who understands the multifaceted mechanics of your first MTP and its surrounding structures. Bunion surgery involves more than just removing the bump at the base of your big toe, and it is best followed up with supportive therapies to prevent a recurrence of your health problem.

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